• Carbon Offset Developers
  • Sustainable Communities
  • Industry

Carbon Offset Developers

  • Biogas

    Landfill Methane

    Methane from landfills is generated from the anaerobic microbial decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW). Landfill gas (LFG) consists of about 50% methane and about 50% carbon dioxide (CO2), and a small amount of non-methane organic compounds. Landfills are the third-largest source of anthropogenic methane in the U.S., accounting for 18 percent of all methane emissions in 2012. LFG is harmful as both an asphyxiation and explosion hazard, in addition to causing nuisance odors. Gas migration offsite can cause these problems at locations distant from the landfill site.

    Methane emissions from landfills can represent an opportunity to capture a waste gas escaping to the atmosphere and use it as a clean burning energy resource. LFG is collected at landfills through the installation of a network of gas wells into the filled cells of the landfill. The collected gas is routed to one or more destruction devices where the careful monitoring of flow and methane concentration allows for the calculation of GHG emission reduction credits. Flaring of the LFG is the simplest means of converting methane to carbon dioxide; however, more landfills are installing gas-to-energy systems that utilize the energy harvested from LFG combustion to produce electricity that is sent to regional grids.

    Case Study:

    RCE has performed numerous verifications of landfill carbon credit projects for the Climate Action Reserve. The projects range from having a single flare to several engines, pipeline injection, or CNG fueling station. McKinney Landfill is one of the largest projects RCE has verified. Landfill gas is pulled from 65 acres through 36 vertical and horizontal extraction wells. The gas is combusted in two generators with an option to be flared when the engines are not in operation. The project generates about 70,000 tonnes of CO2e per year in verified carbon credits.

    Livestock Methane

    livestock-methane-cowDairy cattle and swine farm operations produce large volumes of manure as liquids and slurries that are typically stored in large lagoons where anaerobic decomposition produces biogas containing upwards of 70% methane. Globally, manure management contributed about 9% of total anthropogenic methane emissions in 2012, nearly half of which was generated in the United States. Manure management through the use of biogas recovery and control systems can reduce methane emissions and generate GHG emission reduction credits. A biogas recovery and control system is an anaerobic digester that captures and combusts methane-rich biogas to produce electricity, heat, or hot water. Biogas recovery and control systems not only serve to mitigate GHG emissions and produce clean energy but also improve air and water quality, reduce odors, improve nutrient management, and promote sustainable environmental development.

    Case Study:

    RCE has performed numerous verifications of livestock carbon credit projects for the Climate Action Reserve (CAR) and the California Air Resources Board (ARB). While dairy herd sizes range from a few hundred to over 15,000 milking cows, a recent project had an average of 4,000 milking cows. Prior to the project, their waste was stored in an open, anaerobic lagoon nearly 15 feet deep; the lagoon was topped with a flexible membrane cover that allows the trapped gas to accumulate and then drawn into two 600 kW internal combustion engines that generated 4000 MWh electricity last year entirely from biogenic methane. The project generates about 13,500 tonnes of CO2e per year in verified carbon credits.

    Wastewater

    wastewaterOrganic waste materials are typically stored in large open lagoons, where the materials decompose through the action of anaerobic microbial respiration reactions that ultimately produce methane (CH4), a potent GHG. Anaerobic lagoons are used to treat industrial wastewaters from industries such as slaughterhouses, meat/poultry-processing plants, rendering plants, and vegetable processing facilities.  The anaerobic lagoons, similar to those in operation at livestock facilities, generate objectionable odors in addition to the release of many metric tons of CH4 annually.

    Replacement of anaerobic lagoons with anaerobic digesters allows for the capture of generated CH4 which can then treated in several ways to reduce the GHG impact of the released gases.  The CH4 can be simply flared to convert it to CO2, a much less potent GHG. Other uses include CH4 combustion in large internal combustion engines to generate electricity for use on site and/or transport to the grid, and combustion in boilers for heat generation which can be used for facility heating and to drive industrial processes.

    Case Study:

    RCE has performed several verifications for the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) at a large potato processing facility in the Pacific Northwest. The baseline scenario of the project involved treating the wastewater from the processing operations in open anaerobic lagoons where methane formed from the microbial degradation of wastewater organics was released to the atmosphere. The project replaced the lagoons with an anaerobic digester where the methane was captured and combusted in a beneficial reuse scenario. The captured biogas is transported to the adjacent potato processing facility for use in the facility’s boilers, which displaces natural gas.  Thus, the project generates verified carbon credits through the conversion of CH4 to CO2, as well as displacing the combustion of natural gas in the beneficial reuse scenario.

  • Biomass

    BC-BiomasBiomass fuels include a broad range of sources and are used for electricity production, heat generation and transportation fuels. Wood waste from pulp and paper mills, construction and demolition debris, yard trimmings, municipal solid waste sludge pellets and other consumer, municipal and agricultural wastes are just a few examples of biomass used as fuel. Energy from biomass is considered carbon neutral as the carbon dioxide released from the combustion process would have occurred naturally over time.

    Case Study:

    Kruger Products L.P. operates a pulp and paper mill in British Columbia (BC) and installed a biomass gasification plant in order to generate emission reductions under BC’s Climate Investment Branch. As part of BC’s goal for carbon neutrality, the government purchases emission reductions from the Kruger Products L.P. fuel-switching Project. Gasification technology involves the pyrolysis of fuel at high temperatures that results in the production of “syngas” and ash. The system then introduces oxygen into the syngas stream in order to achieve combustion. This type of technology ultimately reduces the amount of particulate matter in stack emissions, making it an environmentally cleaner alternative to other combustion technologies.

  • Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SequestrationThe most recent IPCC 5th Assessment Report emphasized that it is “extremely likely” that global warming is linked to anthropogenic influences, such as the burning of fossil fuels.  It is necessary to find ways to capture and sequester a significant amount of the CO2 emissions from these fuels in the near term in order to seriously address global warming related to these emissions. Geologic sequestration in underground reservoirs is one viable method to do this and is generally divided into two categories: injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs to recover additional hydrocarbons and injection into deep saline aquifers simply for long term storage.

    Senior staff at RCE have extensive experience in enhanced oil recovery projects using carbon dioxide injection. Ron Collings was a production/reservoir engineer for the Rangely Weber Sand Unit oil field during the installation of the CO2 injection (EOR) project infrastructure and was later the Reservoir Engineer responsible for monitoring and enhancing the oil recovery process at the project. This experience provides RCE with the knowledge base to help develop feasibility studies as well as project protocols and baseline and monitoring methodologies for geologic sequestration projects.

    Case Study:

    RCE verified CO2 emission reductions at a natural gas plant in West Texas. The plant processes high CO2 content natural gas which was separated and vented as waste gas. The project developer provided compression and pipeline facilities to sell this CO2 to a pipeline that sold the CO2 to oil and gas operators for enhanced oil recovery.

  • Coal Mines

    coal-train

    Methane is generated as a byproduct of the coalification process and is stored under pressure within the coal until mining activities release it to the atmosphere. Coal mine gas can be used as energy at usable concentrations of greater than 30% methane. Various end-use options that can utilize low to medium-quality methane gas can provide the following benefits:

    • Reduce the amount of ventilation air needed to be passed through the mine to keep the methane concentration at safe levels, resulting in energy savings;
    • Provide an energy source to the mine as thermal energy or as fuel for power generation mitigating utility costs; and
    • Qualify GHG emissions reductions as carbon credits which can be monetized in various GHG voluntary or compliance programs.

     

    Case Study:

    RCE has compiled the US coal mine emissions inventory for the U.S. EPA since 2005. The inventory includes methane emissions from all underground and surface coal mining activities, post mining coal emissions, and abandoned mine emissions in the US. RCE’s calculated coal mine methane inventory is published in the National GHG Inventory Report and submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Additionally, the inventory informs EPA on the accomplishments and opportunities for GHG reductions in the coal mining sector. 

  • Forestry

    forestryForest degradation and loss contributes to about 15% of overall GHG emissions worldwide, so comprehensive climate change solutions must take this sector into account. By altering forest management practices to increase tree growth and retention over time, forest owners can get credit to sell to people interested in both climate change mitigation and conservation –making forestry an attractive offset project type. RCE has experience verifying forest carbon offset projects for the voluntary and CA Regulatory offsets markets. We have teamed with Forester’s Co-op, a forestry consulting company with over 15 years of experience, developing a suite of services that includes both project verification and origination.

    Additionally, RCE has audited specific harvest practices to assess their potential for generating GHG reductions and conducted GHG footprint verification within the forest products manufacturing industry.

    Case Study:

    RCE completed a verification for Blue Source and the National Audubon Society’s Francis Beidler Improved Forest Management project in South Carolina. The project, located in the Four Holes Swamp, consisted of largely native bottomland hardwoods with small areas of planted pines. The project area was made up largely of forest lands that had been managed for timber prior to acquisition by Audubon, who has enrolled them in a permanent conservation program resulting in ongoing carbon sequestration. RCE conducted a dual verification on this project, re-verifying ARB early action credits for the purpose of reducing their invalidation timeframe under ARB’s program, and conducting an initial verification on new credits under the Climate Action Reserve’s Forest Project Protocol.

  • Nitric Acid Production

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent GHG with a global warming potential of 298. A major industrial source of N2O is the formation of N2O as a by-product of the oxidation process in the production of nitric acid. Some nitric acid is used primarily to make synthetic fertilizers. Nitric acid plants in the United States that install and use an N2O emission control technology to reduce N2O emissions are eligible to receive GHG emission reductions for N2O abatement.

    RCE has developed complete carbon footprints for nitric acid production facilities and is familiar with the U.S. EPA’s Part 98 Mandatory GHG Reporting requirements under Subpart TT. In addition, RCE has verified project emission reductions under the Climate Action Reserve’s Nitric Acid Production Project Protocol for several projects and has served as a technical consultant to nitric acid plant project developers.

    Case Study:

    RCE has worked with ClimeCo America Corporation, a market leader in N2O emissions abatement projects, to verify multiple projects located at nitric acid plants to the Climate Action Reserve’s Protocol. RCE has verified projects that use secondary abatement (El Dorado Nitrogen, L.P. – Houston, TX) as well as the only current tertiary abatement carbon offset project in the U.S. (Rentech Energy Midwest Corporation – East Dubuque, IL).

  • Ozone Depleting Substances

    OzoneIn addition to contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer, many Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) are also extremely potent GHGs with global warming potentials several thousand times that of CO2. The Montreal Protocol, an international agreement that created a framework to limit and eventually eliminate the production of most ODS, controls only the production and consumption of ODS, but not end-of-life destruction and related emissions. In cases where the production of an ODS has ceased, project developers destroying ODS are eligible to receive GHG emission reduction credits.

    RCE has completed several verifications of project emission reductions under the California Air Resources Board’s (ARB) ODS Project Protocol, the Climate Action Reserve’s Project Protocol while providing consulting services for other ODS projects and ODS protocol development.

    Case Study:

    RCE has verified a variety of types of ODS projects including the destruction of virgin ODS material as well as the destruction of reclaimed ODS material from refrigerators or air conditioning units. RCE worked with A-Gas Americas, an EPA-certified Refrigerant Reclaimer, to verify their carbon offset projects under the California ARB compliance offset program. A-Gas Americas sources ODS material from all over the U.S in addition to operating one of the seven commercially available ODS destruction facilities in the U.S. A-Gas Americas utilizes Plascon, a plasma arc destruction technology to destroy the ODS material.

  • Oil and Gas

    oil-and-gasMethane is the primary constituent of natural gas and can be produced during oil production activities, where it evolves from the oil as pressure is reduced or as non-associated gas, where it is produced without the oil component. Oil and Gas (O&G) is the second largest methane source category in the U.S., representing about 24% of methane emissions in 2013.  There are several cost-effective technologies available to capture the value of this resource and mitigate the environmental impact of the release of methane such as green well completions, compressor seal modifications, and installing vapor recovery units.

    RCE can assess a company’s carbon footprint and current practices to determine an appropriate baseline emission estimate. Emission reductions can then be accounted for upon implementation of projects designed to mitigate GHG emissions. RCE has been active in validating project protocols and plans and verifying project emission reductions under the British Columbia Emission Offset Regulation since 2011.

    Case Study:

    RCE worked with the Pacific Carbon Trust, now Climate Investment Branch of the British Columbia Government, to validate a group of oil and gas GHG emission reduction protocols. These included an Electrification Module (natural gas powered compression to hydropower), Engine Fuel Management Module, High-Bleed to Low-Bleed Conversion of Pneumatic Controllers, Instrument Gas to Air Conversion in Process Control Systems, Pump System Conversion from Natural Gas, Vent Gas Capture, and Waste Heat Recovery.

    RCE has verified offset projects for high-bleed to low-bleed conversion, engine fuel management, electrification, instrument gas to air as well as pipeline blowdown to avoid natural gas venting and flaring under the B.C. Emission Offsets Regulation, B.C. Reg. 393/2008

  • Renewable Energy

    renewable-energyAccording to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), non-hydropower renewable electricity generation has nearly quadrupled since 1990 and contributes to approximately 13% of total U.S. electricity generation.  The EIA projects that renewable electricity generation will account for 17% of total U.S. electricity generation in 2035. The largest share of the renewable-generated electricity in 2013 came from hydroelectric energy (66%), followed by wind (17%), wood (9%), biomass waste (4%), geothermal (4%), and solar (0.2%). 

    Although the demand for renewable energy production is increasing, renewable energy projects can generally be more capital intensive to build and operate than coal and natural gas plants. RCE applies GHG accounting methods to determine alternative revenue sources such as renewable energy credits (RECs) or carbon credits to help wind and solar project developers offset the project costs. RCE also continually monitors the evolving State-based renewable energy laws and regulations and Federal renewable energy mandates, and can assist project developers understand the market changes and potential renewable energy project opportunities.

  • Transportation

    transportationTransportation emissions sources in the United States account for nearly a third of the nation’s GHG emissions and are rising faster than in any other sector. Transit agencies are seeing increases in emissions due to population increases and regional climate action planning which often involves expanding transit service. These agencies are able to monitor carbon efficiency by calculating performance metrics to compare emissions by passenger miles, vehicle miles, and revenue vehicle hours over time.

    GHG emission reduction opportunities in the freight transportation sector can be found by using more efficient intermodal methods such as railroads, waterways, and pipelines or truck idle reduction projects. In addition, idle reduction programs at large trucking companies have generated emission reductions through the use of auxiliary power units or small direct-fired heaters.

    Case Study:

    Many vehicle operators must idle their vehicles for long periods of time to provide heating or cooling to the vehicle interior.  IdleAir is a company that supplies a system that can be attached to the window of a vehicle, providing all necessary power and an alternative to idling. RCE completed the verification of IdleAir’s American Carbon Registry project in 2014. IdleAir’s project not only created voluntary GHG emission reductions it also reduced other mobile source emissions such as NOx, VOCs, and PM2.5.

Sustainable Communities

  • Airports & Aviation

    In today’s globalized world, airports offer an efficient method of transportation to connect people, places, and products.  As technology and communication improve, it is important that airports strive to manage and reduce their carbon footprints in a transparent and sustainable manner.  RCE employees are knowledgeable of the types of emission sources and associated activity data typically found at airports, including Scope 3 sources such as the various airlines’ leased ticket counters, APUs, and LTO cycle emissions.  

    Recently, the Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) Program expanded into North America, providing an industry global reference standard for airport carbon mapping and energy management.  This program focuses on carbon management, reduction, optimization, stakeholder engagement, and neutrality. 

    Case Study:

    In early 2015, RCE completed three Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) Level II Verifications for the Port of Portland: Portland International Airport (PDX), Hillsboro Airport (HIO), and Portland – Troutdale Airport (TTD).  Handling approximately 15 million passengers per year, PDX is one of the busiest airports in the United States and the second airport in North America to receive ACA certification.  Throughout the ACA verification process, RCE reviewed PDX’s carbon policy and management plan and carbon footprint, physically inspecting major emission sources such as the main terminal and headquarters building, airport-owned vehicles and fueling stations, the central utility plant (CUP) boilers and stand-by generators, and the fire station and training site. 

  • Hospitals

    As the health care field continues to develop, more hospitals are committing to environmental sustainability and regenerative health in hopes of improving the health of people and their communities.  From the volatile waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) emitted during surgical procedures to the procurement of sustainable food for food courts, hospitals have numerous options to pursue a more sustainable future. 

    RCE understands GHG emission sources typically found at hospitals and can help your hospital calculate its carbon footprint to determine the carbon intensity of products and activities. In addition, RCE can help hospitals meet sustainability goals by performing life cycle assessments (LCA) on specific products to better understand the associated upstream and downstream processes, and engage your community to account for their needs and promote your accomplishments.

    Case Study:

    In late 2013, RCE completed a facility verification for Massachusetts General Hospital for the MA GHG Emissions Reporting Program which requires facilities to submit annual GHG reports to the MA Department of Environmental Protection. Mass General is the third oldest general hospital in the U.S. and the largest hospital in New England. RCE verified Mass General’s 2012 GHG emissions for its clinical and research facilities in Charlestown, MA. RCE visited the hospital to view its emissions sources and met with key personnel involved in the development of the GHG emissions inventory. The facility’s GHG emissions sources include combustion of natural gas by boilers and a cogeneration system which generates electricity and heat, as well as fugitive emissions from nitrous oxide and refrigerants and emissions from combustion of diesel by emergency generators.

  • Cities & Counties

    In order to manage GHG emissions, governments must measure and verify them according to prevailing GHG accounting methodologies. RCE has completed complex GHG inventory verifications for several cities and counties in the U.S. that have included GHG emissions sources from stationary combustion, mobile combustion, process emissions from wastewater treatment plants, fugitive emissions from landfills, and purchased electricity. Our GHG accounting and verification experiences have given us insights into developing inventory management plans and data gathering/information control processes for cities and communities using standards such as The Climate Registry’s Local Government Organization Protocol.  RCE can help cities use GHG data to set and measure emission reduction goals, and assist organizations achieve larger sustainability goals.

    Case Study:

    In 2012, RCE completed verification for the City of Davis in California under TCR’s LGO Protocol. The City of Davis included a wastewater treatment facility that processes sewage for a population of over 65,000 people, hundreds of vehicles, and a complicated energy usage infrastructure that included electricity use from streetlights, water collection, transportation systems, and numerous city owned properties.

  • Universities & Colleges

    As a hub for learning and development, universities are a venue through which to address institutional change, social responsibility, sustainability, green building and energy efficiency, transportation, waste and recycling, among other topics.  RCE has completed numerous GHG verifications of universities and colleges and is very knowledgeable of emission sources typically associated with large campuses.  Our employees can help incorporate sustainability, carbon reduction plans, and energy management approaches into campus operations, planning, research, and curricula.

    Case Study:

    RCE completed verifications for the University of California San Francisco’s 2012 and 2013 GHG emissions inventories for TCR’s voluntary reporting program. The UCSF campus focuses exclusively on health sciences and includes four professional schools and its graduate division. Facilities and GHG emissions sources at UCSF include hospitals, medical offices, laboratories, academic buildings, a shuttle bus fleet, and a power plant with a cogeneration unit, among others. RCE conducted site visits to several of UCSF’s facilities to view emissions sources and reviewed data and documents from several sources to confirm that all sources were included in the GHG report.

Industry

  • Electric Utilities

    Determining GHG emission associated with electric utilities can be quite complex.  The calculations not only include electric power generation, but also transmission and distributions losses, power wheeling, and direct fugitives of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).  RCE received its ANSI accreditation for verifying electric power transactions in March 2014, and has since completed several GHG verifications for large utilities in CA and WA.  In addition, RCE has completed numerous GHG verifications for utilities under Massachusetts GHG reporting program.

    Case Study:

    RCE verified Seattle City Light’s 2012 GHG emissions inventory and its power delivery metrics. The utility serves customers in the City of Seattle and eight adjacent jurisdictions and operates its own hydroelectric projects which provide about half of the power to its customers with the remainder generated by a mix of power sources including purchased hydro, nuclear, wind, coal, and landfill gas. RCE’s verification process included reviews of power generation, purchased power, transmission and distribution losses, and REC adjustments. Seattle City Light’s power delivery metrics reflect emissions associated with electricity delivered to distinct customer groups including retail electric deliveries, wholesale electric deliveries and green power electric deliveries. Utility customers apply these metrics to calculate GHG emissions associated with their own purchased electricity.

  • Manufacturing

    Manufacturing processes can be energy intensive, releasing GHG emissions directly from fossil fuel combustion and indirectly from electrical generation. Additionally, GHG emissions can be produced as the by-products of various non-energy-related industrial activities through chemical transformation of raw materials. Iron and steel production release the most GHGs during the manufacturing process.  In 2012, the industry sector made up 5.1% of total U.S. GHG emissions.

    Case Study:

    RCE completed several GHG emission inventory verifications in the manufacturing sector under the Massachusetts GHG Emissions Reporting Program which requires facilities to submit annual GHG reports to the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. In 2012 and 2013 RCE completed verifications for the New England Confectionary Company (NECCO) which makes candy, and Brittany Dyeing & Printing Corp which prints U.S. military camouflage fabrics.

  • Mining & Minerals

    miningMany mining and metals companies are now measuring, managing and reducing their own GHG emissions.  Energy costs are a significant portion of the overall cost of mining, refining, and smelting metals.  Reducing energy consumption through energy efficiency technologies and the use of renewable energy in their electric supply are ways the mining industry can limit its impacts to the environment and help reduce operational costs at their facilities.  Gassy underground coal mines may have the opportunity to recover and utilize vented methane for electric power generation or other energy needs at the mine site.

    Case Study:

    From 2009-2015, RCE completed the GHG emission inventory verification of the Kennecott Utah Copper’s Bingham Canyon operations near Salt Lake, Utah to The Climate Registry standards.  In addition to the large-scale mining activities, facilities included a power plant, concentrator, smelter, and refinery.

  • Oil & Gas

    oil-and-gasMethane is the primary constituent of natural gas and can be produced during oil production activities, where it evolves from the oil as pressure is reduced or as non-associated gas, where it is produced without the oil component. Oil and Gas (O&G) is the second largest methane source category in the U.S., representing about 24% of methane emissions in 2013.  There are several cost-effective technologies available to capture the value of this resource and mitigate the environmental impact of the release of methane such as green well completions, compressor seal modifications, and installing vapor recovery units.

    RCE can assess a company’s carbon footprint and current practices to determine an appropriate baseline emission estimate. Emission reductions can then be accounted for upon implementation of projects designed to mitigate GHG emissions. RCE has been active in validating project protocols and plans and verifying project emission reductions under the British Columbia Emission Offset Regulation since 2011.

    Case Study:

    It has been a common practice to vent or flare high pressure natural gas within a section of a natural gas pipeline system that needs to undergo repair or maintenance. There are various options to venting or flaring all of this gas. One is to send a portion of the gas into a lower pressure pipeline; another is to use portable pumps to deplete the gas in the pipeline by closing the upstream valve and injecting it into the downstream portion of the pipeline. RCE verified a unique pipeline blowdown project in British Columbia which reversed the flow of gas from the pipeline section to be maintained back into pressure depleted gas wells. Only a very small portion of the gas needed to be flared.

  • Pulp & Paper

    pulp-and-paperPulp and paper manufacturing is an energy-intensive process that is unique in many respects when compared to other manufacturing sectors. The manufacture of pulp and paper often includes the use of biogenic energy sources and involves chemical process emissions that RCE has gained knowledge of over several verifications. Given this experience, RCE is well poised to assess and verify emissions from pulp and paper manufacturing.

    Case Study:

    RCE completed several GHG emission inventory verifications in the pulp and paper manufacturing section under the British Columbia Reporting Regulation. Since 2010 RCE has verified GHG inventories for Canfor Taylor Pulp and Skookumchuck Pulp Inc. The Skookumchuck facility produces softwood pulp. It also has a cogeneration project that produces power for the plant and for export to the grid. GHG emissions sources include black liquor, hog fuel, and natural gas combustion by stationary combustion sources, combustion of CNGC gases, process emissions from soda ash, and combustion of diesel and propane by mobile sources.

  • Renewable Fuels

    Ethanol

    The most commonly known renewable fuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Both are derived from biomass and can be converted into alternative liquid fuels. In the U.S., anhydrous ethanol is blended with petroleum based gasoline as E10 or E85. Biodiesel can be made from combining plant oil, vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease with an alcohol through a process known as transesterification. RCE approaches this sector in terms of its climate change benefits through analyzing associated life-cycle GHG emissions and carbon intensities of various fuels and feedstocks. 

    Governments in the U.S. and abroad have begun enacting standards directed at reducing the carbon intensity of transportation fuels over their traditional fossil fuel counterparts. These standards result in reduced CO2 emissions to the atmosphere from mobile combustion. “Low Carbon Fuel Standards” or LCFS promote the blending of traditional fossil fuels with bio-fuels to achieve a lower carbon footprint. British Columbia began its LCFS in 2013 and CA and OR are expected to implement LCFS by 2016. RCE continually monitors related State and Federal renewable fuel standards and can assist fuel producers and project developers understand the mechanisms used by U.S. EPA to attain valuable Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs).